Judea declares war on Germany
Judea declares war on Germany, var rubriken på första sidan av Daily Express den 24 mars 1933. Huvudrubriken följdes av underrubrikerna Jews of all the world unite in action och Boycott of german goods - Mass demonstrations.
Bojkott bestäms i New York
Den 12 mars 1933 samlade American Jewish Congress, B’nai B’rith och American Jewish Committee sina representanter till ett möte i New York, USA. George Fredman, ordförande för Jewish War Veterans uppmanade till bojkott av tyska varor genom ett importembargo. Joseph Proskauer och Irving Lehman från American Jewish Committee manade till besinning och ville inte fara fram lika drastiskt. Lehman menade att en bojkott "...may add to the terrible dangers of the Jews in Germany." [...] "I implore you in the name of humanity, don’t let anger pass a resolution which will kill Jews in Germany". Rabbi Stephen S. Wise deklarerade: "The time for prudence and caution is past. We must speak up like men. How can we ask our Christian friends to lift their voices in protest against the wrongs suffered by Jews if we keep silent? What is happening in Germany today may happen tomorrow in any other land on earth unless its is challenged and rebuked. It is not the German Jews who are being attacked. It is the Jews." Mötesdeltagarna var överens om att den organiserade bojkotten skulle påbörjas och en massiv protest aviserades till den 27 mars i Madison Square Garden.
Den 23 mars protesterade cirka 20 000 judar vid New York's City Hall samtidigt som demonstrationer hölls utanför North German Lloyd and Hamburg-American Shipping Lines. Runtom i New York manades till bojkott av tyska varor.
Den 24 mars publicerade den brittiska tidningen artikeln Judea declares war on Germany. Tidningen förutsåg ett kommande "holy war" mot tyska företag och tyska ekonomiska intressen och judar över hela världen uppmanades till massdemonstrationer och bojkott av tyska varor och produkter.
Den 27 mars hölls ett stort protestmöte i Madison Square Garden. Cirka 40 000 personer närvarade. Mötet beskrevs som "a rally" i amerikansk media. Förutom i New York hölls liknande möten i Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cleveland och flera andra platser. Totalt cirka 70 runtom i USA uppmanade till total bojkott mot Tyskland.
Den 7 augusti publicerade New York Times ett tal av Samuel Untermyer. Det var en utskrift av ett tal Untermyer hade hållit i radio. I talet säger Untermyer bland annat att judar är aristokraterna i världen: "For the Jews are the aristocrats of the world. From time immemorial they have been persecuted and have seen their persecutors come and go. They alone have survived. And so will history repeat itself, but that furnishes no reason why we should permit this reversion of a once great nation to the Dark Ages or fail to rescue these 600,000 human souls from the tortures of hell as we can with the aid of our Christian friends, if we have the will to act."
Bojkotten varade i 12 år.
Orsaken till bojkotten var att judar skulle ha blivit utsatta för omfattande förföljelser i Tyskland sedan Adolf Hitler kom till makten i januari samma år. Från revisionistiskt håll har det dock påpekats att Hitler ännu inte hade utfärdat några sanktioner mot judar, och att enstaka övergrepp som dock förekom inte var sanktionerade från den nationalsocialistiska regeringen och heller inte var unika i sitt slag i Europa. Sionistiska organisationer i Tyskland telegraferade den 26 mars och tillbakavisade ryktena om förföljelser mot judar som grundlösa.
Judea declares war on Germany - full artikeltext
- JUDEA DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY
- JEWS OF ALL THE WORLD UNITE
- BOYCOTT OF GERMAN GOODS
- MASS DEMONSTRATIONS
- Daily Express Special Political Correspondent.
- A strange and unforeseen sequel has emerged from the stories of German Jew-baiting. The whole of Israel throughout the world is uniting to declare an economic and financial war on Germany. Hitherto the cry has gone up: "Germany is persecuting the Jews." If the present plans are carried out, the Hitlerite cry will be: "The Jews are persecuting Germany." All Israel is rising in wrath against the Nazi onslaught on the Jews. Adolf Hitler, swept into power by an appeal of elemental patriotism, is making history of a kind he least expected. Thinking to unite only the German nation to race consciousness, he has roused the whole Jewish people to national renascence.
- The appearance of the Swastika symbol of a new Germany has called forth the Lion of Judah, the old battle symbol of Jewish defiance. Fourteen million Jews, dispersed throughout the world, have banded together as one man to declare war on the German persecutors of their co-religionists. Sectional differences and antagonisms have been submerged in one common aim - to stand by the 600,000 Jews of Germany who are terrorised by Hitlerite anti-Semitism and to compel Fascist Germany to end its campaign of violence and suppression directed against its Jewish minority.
- Plans For Action Maturing In Europe And America
- World Jewry has made up its mind not to rest quiescent in face of this revival of medieval Jew-baiting. Germany may be called on to pay a heavy price for Hitler's antagonism to the Jews. She is faced with an international boycott in commerce, finance, and industry. The Jewish merchant prince is leaving his counting-house, the banker his board-room, the shopkeeper his store, and the pedlar his humble barrow, to join together in what has become a holy war to combat the Hitlerite enemies of the Jew. Plans for concerted Jewish action are being matured in Europe and America to strike back in reprisal at Hitlerite Germany. In London, New York, Paris, and Warsaw Jewish merchants are waiting for a commercial crusade. Resolutions are being taken throughout the Jewish business
- BRITISH JEWS PROTEST AT NAZI TACTICS
- MERCHANTS AND FINANCIERS RALLY TO MOVEMENT
- GERMAN LINERS AFFECTED?
- world to sever trade relations with Germany. Large numbers of merchants in London have resolved to stop buying German goods, even at the cost of suffering heavy loss. A meeting of the Jewish textile trade in London has been called for Monday to consider the situation and to determine what steps should be taken. Germany is a heavy borrower in foreign money markets, where Jewish influence is considerable. Continued anti-Semitism in Germany is likely to react seriously against her. A move is on foot on the part of Jewish financiers to exert pressure to force anti-Jewish action to stop.
- The Organisation of Jewish Youth in Britain are organizing demonstrations in London and the provinces during the weekend. The Board of Deputies of British Jews, representing the entire Jewish community of Great Britain, are meeting in special session on Sunday to discuss the German situation, and to decide on what action should be taken to counteract the attacks on their German fellow-Jews. World-wide preparations are being made to organise demonstrations of protest.
- EMBARGO IN POLAND
- A concerted boycott by Jewish buyers is likely to involve grave damage to the German export trade. Jewish merchants all over the world are large buyers of German manufactured goods, chiefly cotton goods, silks, toys, electrical fittings, and furniture. In Poland, the trade embargo on Germany is already in operation. In France, a proposed ban on German imports is being widely canvassed in Jewish circles. German Transatlantic shipping traffic is likewise threatened. The Bremen and the Europa, the German crack liners, may suffer heavily from a Jewish anti-German boycott. Jewish trans-ocean travellers form an important part of the patrons of these liners because of their extensive part in international trade. The loss of their patronage would be a heavy blow to Germany's Atlantic trade.
- In New York yesterday 10,000 Jewish ex-soldiers marched to the City Hall to hold a protest demonstration. Large crowds watched the men, some of whom wore old British uniforms, petition the mayor to support them in a boycott of German goods. Another petition was handed in at the British Consulate-General requesting that Palestine should receive refugees from Germany without restriction. Members of the American House of Representatives are introducing resolutions protesting against the anti-Jewish excesses in Germany. The American trade unions, representing 3,000,000 workers, have also decided to join in the protest.
- A rabbinical decree in New York has made the next Monday a day of fasting and prayer over the Hitler campaign. Fasting will begin on Sunday at sunset and finish at sunset on Monday. All Jewish shops in New York will be closed on Monday during a parade. Apart from a monster meeting in Madison-square Garden, meetings are to be held in 300 American cities. Madison-square Garden will see the remarkable sight of Bishop Manning speaking from a Jewish platform appealing for an end of the Hitler "terror."
- DAY OF SERMONS
- It had been arranged to charge a shilling admission and 5 s. for box seats, but a public-spirited Jew, Frank Cohen, an insurance broker, gove [sic] a personal cheque for L 1,000 to cover all expenses, so admission will be free. Every rabbi in the city of New York has been placed under a sacred obligation by rabbinical decree to devote Saturday's sermon to the plight of Jews in Germany. Representative Jewish organisations in the European capitals are understood to be making representations to their various Governments to use influence with the Hitler Cabinet to induce it to call a halt in the oppression of the German Jews. The old and reunited people of Israel are rising with new and modern weapons to fight their age-old battle with their persecutors.
- Painesville Telegraph den 24 mars 1933: "The Hitler goverment, confirmed yesterday as an absolute dictatorship for four years, turned its attention today to the twin problems of answering atrocity reports abroad and neeting threats of an economic boycott by Jewish business men in foreign lands."
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette den 24 mars 1933: "Ten thousand Jews marched to city hall toady to the mournful chant of "El Molai Rachmen", the dirge for the dead, to protest alleged persecutions in Germany and to call for a boycatt of German goods."
- New York Times den 24 mars 1933: "10,000 WITNESS PARADE Resolutions Handed to the Mayor Call for Boycott and Diplomatic Protest to Germany."
- Cairns Post den 25 mars 1933: "The "Guardian" says: "The East End Jews have begun to boycott German goods. Notices in Houndsditch shop windows proclaim, 'no German goods sold here; no German travellers need call.' A Jewish warehouse has cancelled an order for £14,000 worth of German goods. The order was transferred to America. Woolfs (skin merchants) have circularised the fur trade, urging a refusal to handle German products. Some Jewish bakers are discontinuing using German flour."
- New York times den 25 mars 1933: "The Jewish boycott movement against reported anti-Semitic persecution in Germany gained momentum in London today as placards bearing the words "Boycott German Goods" appeared in windows and stores in the high-class shopping district of the West End, while automobiles similarly billed slowly paraded the streets."